Language without Taboos
The writers are welcomed with the advent of the Dictionary of obscene language of Ukrainian. “Such books, of course, are needed – they give the importance of the subject discussed. Because it turns out that the phenomenon is, and science ignores it. And between this object this is easy and is available for study and research in any beer,-said Les Podervyansky.
Lesya Stavytska: I must overcome the taboo.
Talk of Dmitry Ten with Lesia Stavitska
On the pages of the newspaper “Day” № 19, Saturday, February 2, 2008
Oh Tzhe, it happened something that had to happen for a long time. In Kiev, the publishing house “critic” published a book “Ukrainian language without taboos.” Dictionary of obscene language and its matches»-or, simply put, the Dictionary of Ukrainian mat and rough swearing.
You can be able to practice in compiling the ode about солов’їну and chaste Ukrainian, to send the pilgrims to the address of “mankurites” and “Agent of the Fifth column”, which is a nightingale. But the language is the living organism, all parts of which are necessary for the normal functioning of the single whole. and attempts to take out one of those parts does not contribute to the revival and the language of speech, the way the professional Ukrainians are worried.
“The Ukrainian language without taboos” is a unique edition of many aspects. In fact this is the first study of Ukrainian obscene language, performed at academic level. However, it is not a wonder, because “criticism” is known not only for the thorough preparation and high publishing culture of its projects, but also the constant intellectual innovations and discoveries of new, hitherto unexplored subjects.
A new dictionary is a trip to the Ukrainian one that you wanted to know, but was afraid to ask. “The same” words are relatively few, and they are mostly the components of extraordinarily witty, juicy, and apt sayings. Much can be quoted on a newspaper column — but it is best to look at the dictionary itself. Any unbiased admirer will give a real delight: about 5000 words and persistent phrases, certificates of origin and historical and cultural comments, cases of non-standard use… This is truly a living language — contradictory, acute, energetic, incredible funny — and beautiful.
The author of the Dictionary is Lesya Stavytska, Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor, head of the Department of Sociolinguistics of the Institute of Ukrainian Language Nasu. She is the author of a number of linguistics monographs, such as the “aesthetics of the word in Ukrainian poetry 10 – 30 yy”. Twentieth century.» (2000), “genres and styles in the history of the Ukrainian Literary language” (1989, in co-authorship), as well as a sensational “short dictionary of the Ukrainian Language” (2003). “Day” wrote in detail about the last edition, then we published an interview with Mrs. Lesia (February 6, 2004). And today we offer a conversation with a researcher about a new book, which will cause, obviously, much more acute discussion than any previous work of Stavnitsky.
-Immediately to the etymology. Where is the mat in the Ukrainian language? After all, the idea is that our language is extremely chaste, and all the Netrrzschina-it is a solid borrowing from Russian or even tartar.
is an absolute myth, and in the preface I write about this in detail. In Russia in about 1865 year was issued “Dictionary of emblematic-Endcyclichesky Tatar material words phrases.” The characteristic of the vocabulary and phraseology as “Tatar” words is due to the fact that it meant “any non-Christian”, “Alien”. There is nothing strange about this, because in the everyday ethno-consciousness national plague associated with the bad. In other words, since these were bad words, the dictionary title qualifies them as a Butsito (Mongol)-Tatar, ie, strangers, useless, obscene. Since then, such glory has been consolidated behind them. And this myth proved to be very tenacious – until now we believe that all this brought to us Mongol-Tatars. By the way, the Ukrainian saying “swearing on-Moscow” (swearing Matìrno) has the same nature, because the bad words are attributed to the Russians, allowing to distance themselves from them, and the Ukrainian language look better, more decent.
“So whence are these words in us?”
— in fact, all the words, which are called “Mother”, are of the primordial origin, and they have no negative meaning. Their etymology is innocent, but, since the culture has imposed a ban on bodily bottoms, and according to the words that have been marked by the bodily bottom and its function, become obscene.
— As far as I know, this dictionary is generated not always adequate perception of your “Dictionary of the joke of the Ukrainian language”, published in 2003 year. What was the problem?
— Only a dictionary of jargon appeared, the overwhelming majority of readers immediately perceived it as a dictionary of Mat, swearing, and for them it was a breakthrough in the chastity of our language. There, with the exception of a few words as my (say!) omission, there were neither Matyukkiv nor their derivatives. The sexual slang was, but slang itself — the euphemism of the most obscene word to denote a human sexual sphere. I think that the most interpretations could impress that this is the dictionary of the mat. Articulation of the area of bodily bottom, and through the normative language, but is embodied in the written form-for our people, what is spelled out, has sacral meaning,-caused, obviously, such a reaction. When I talked to reporters or participated in the talk show, in the dictionary of Jargon seen, first of all, verbal “strawberry”. Of course, leafing, they did not find the desired, though they were very much like. And then began to provoke me in different ways, that I spoke aloud with a strong word. I still got tired of explaining the difference between a joke of geek, motorists, schoolchildren, pupils and mat. I had to sit down and write the dictionary, which, as it was seen, lacked the consumers of lexicgraphic products.
— What sources have you used?
I knew about the existence of the lexicographic collection of obscene vocabulary in the Slavic world, in American culture. The achievements of Poles, Czechs, Serbs, huge American experience studied with the interest. and entered the dictionary, having attracted, of course, folklore and all available sources, which could illustrate the scene and at the same time erotic space of the Ukrainian language.
— What about folklore can be a bit more?
— It was mostly Ukrainian sorority folklore — extremely rich, interesting, regionally and even conceptually diverse. For example, the sorority folklore of eastern Ukraine is an edition prepared for printing by Nikolai Sulima, Mykhailo Kraskov. And a little different in the spirit of Transcarpathian Russyn folklore-“Rusyn eros”, “Kolomyiky Prykarpattya”. I also used the recordings of oral expressions, which I gave to me, and I wrote the same texts in Kiev, in Poltava region, where I had to come. I am quite aware that the dictionary can be much wider due to even only spoken languages, but it would be needed for a decade. At the same time, ideas on other dictionaries are constantly appearing. My scientific conscience tells the urgent necessity of creation of the Dictionary of Ukrainian conversational language, specific, unstaged Ukrainian curse, translation dictionaries…
— from your words it turns out that the work here is enough for another generation of philologists…
“The language is a chasm, and it shows itself as a abyss, and it would be very much like a little work to uncover the new lexical layers that are so necessary and professional philomences, writers, and translators, and journalists.” The very spring base “Dictionary of Obscene Vocabulary” covers several of the Abyss: original, translated literature, oral language, texts, which are created today, wedding Soromiki songs, which are now in villages sing… I wouldn’t want to be lonely at this springboard. Research should appear — lexicographic, descriptive, and scientific. We have to talk about the language it is. In fact philology, literally is love of the word. And, as Sergei Averintsev said, it is really about intellectual love. We can love the texts of the millennial antiquity, we can love the language of prostitutes, janitor, minister, homeless. But this is a distant love. As a researcher — I always distance myself from the sound and media of this code, as well as the media of the language. As linguistic-I have equally interesting and exquisite texts of Ukrainian poetry, and political discourse of the debate in Parliament, and the language of social workers, and the language of the child, who just began to speak, and the language of an avid lajlivcâ… I learn this as far as it touches my emotions, my intellect. and intellectual love me obliges me to approach the analysis of the languages, wherever they belonged. It is easiest to blame someone in ignorance of the language or to be poor about its poverty. I am my professional duty, I think to invent and create new dictionaries, to be less a trumpet, to find it easier to find a Ukrainian match for, it would seem, “Uncomplex” from one language to another.
-By the way, for translated and borrowed words. You do not have to deny that you have quite a literary word, brightly foreign by origin-Adulter, Alphonse, etc. Do they have to be there?
— but in the preface it is indicated that the dictionary covers not only the sketches, but also euphemism and sexual alimisms. There is a bodily bottom and a corresponding semantic field, and there is euphemism, there is a priostage vocabulary. By the way, the dictionary of sexuality-that would have to be a separate work, which would include special frediistic terms, and psychoanalytic concepts… I have selected the “language without taboos” only that concerns reproductive function, sexual relations, erotic human space.
— Continuing the literary theme: I noticed that you have a lot from our modern handsome writing.
“Yes, there’s a lot.” It is mainly due to the explosive democratisation of the country’s literary writing, which dates back to the 90-ies of the last century. The word became the Act, the Resistance system, artistic ideology. If in the dictionary of Jargon I have given a stage layer, here it is revealed maximally: We were given to attention modern women’s and men’s texts, partly literature of the nineteenth century. But I failed, unfortunately, to cover all translated literature, where there is also this powerful linguistic series, take at least “pianist” Elfriy Jelinek in Ukrainian translation. This is also an important source that will replenish the following editions, and the dictionary can have a slightly different face.
— and who of our writers use the crap most active?
— I’m hard to name one author. The use of this vocabulary is somehow assimilated by the style of the writer, its aesthetic-pragmatic instructions, communicative strategies of the characters and, of course, the conceptual attitude of the writer to the world at all. Let’s say, the style of Yuri Andrukhovych, its irony and self-irony in its own Asim.
Ukrainian sorority culture belongs to shit-culture…
Conversation with Yevgeniya Kononenko with a vocabulary woman Lesia Stavnykova
On the pages of the newspaper “Ukraina Moloda” number 092 per 25.05.2007
“Lesya Stavetska was born in Kiev in Philological family. Graduated from the Kyiv Pedinstitute. M. P. Dragomanov. Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor, head of the Department of Sociolinguistics of the Institute of Ukrainian Language Nasu. The author of books «Aesthetics of the word in Ukrainian poetry 10 – 20 рр. Twentieth century., “Argo, jargon, slang: the social differentiation of the Ukrainian language”, the dictionary “Ukrainian jargon”, over a hundred scientific articles on the issues of linguistic ethics, language culture, bilingualism, social dialecology, gender linguistics. Now completes the dictionary «Ukrainian language without taboos: The sketches, mimisms, eufemisms, sexual alimisms”
We met with Lesia Stavitska on warm may evening for a beer in a café on Rusanivka.
“Lesyu, while you were researching the language of Ukrainian poetry, you were exceptionally serious scholar.” But we have just started to investigate the profanity, as the press and television immediately drew attention. Why did it happen?
“Well, first, I dare to suggest that I have not ceased to be a serious scientist when I wrote about the jargon, and now when I write about a language taboo: Soromyetska, if you want to be in scientific-pattern vocabulary. Secondly, I have never aspired and do not try to attract attention, especially on the part of the media, especially on the scale of three dozen interviews for the last four years.
In fact, such a social attention to the most ordinary lexicographic publication is an abnormal phenomenon. If you want, attitude (this is not the same as the use!) of society to profanity is a litmus piece of its civilization. No coolest visual sex will not cause such an explosion of emotions, laughter, contradictory assessments, discussion in the press, as, for example, the sounding of “forbidden fruit” in the scene, printed in a book or newspaper, Well, and, of course, the dictionary. This state and Europe survived five hundred years ago and has long been “spit out”. According to the expression of one wise man, in the presentation of the event and “sex-shop” is not the appropriate reflexes of good and evil. These are two different sections of one culture. Such dictionaries are relaxed in libraries and are interested in mainly specialists, part of the corresponding words is not less comfortable in the normative dictionaries.
The immaturity of spirit and teenager’s attitude to any conversation aloud about “this language” impress. Here’s an example — one television megastar during another chat about the jargon on the full serjozì I asked: “You are such an intelligent woman, and learn obscene vocabulary?”. But the rest of me was shocked by the other – nastìjne of the desire of another category, in Russian speaking, “evil” journalists (a “brave” and the words of one root)… “Squeeze” with me on TV or in a newspaper a real mat!!! A couple of strong words — both the reader or the viewer is yours. If the elite, which is the journalists by definition, thinks, and go down, by the way, this language on top, what to say about real teenagers?
The streams of the most tabulished words are the same usual phenomenon on our streets, as are scattered butts. They do not affect the rumor. And if you suddenly someone in this way will speak on the radio? This immediately attract a lot of attention, all put their deeds, will start listening.
— … or admire. The tension of attitude to the decreased vocabulary in Ukraine is high.
— A lot of profanity in modern literature…
— You know, a writer who pours on paper, not much different from the mentioned teenager. It is desirable to eppatit, to disrupt a certain social balance, jumping the high bar taboo. Unfortunately, such a literary epatage is businessman and finally annoying, because the written “three words” appear longer than in a real conversation.
Both in the world and in Ukrainian, including modern literature are writers, who this vocabulary helps to communicate with reality, that by nature is a scene in terms of constant violation of rules and norms of justice, humanism or common sense. They remain elitist in their brutality.
— and, however, you devote a lot of time and effort to study the adolescent script and language behavior.
— you know, as linguistic I am very interesting to study this vocabulary, recorded in the Forties folklore, in speech practice as a human existence in language and language in it. As a cowel, this vocabulary is incredibly irritating to the existing scale. It is sad that she was outraged, lost his carnival, became a matìrnim glance at everyday existence, a kind of a pleasure from non-freedom. Culture of the language grows from the “culture of oneself” (Foucault), it is a constant overcoming of everyday life, creating yourself in a tolerant dialogue with others. Our ill-being social reality with its non-cultural power, nervousness, permanent fruit-based society, ruthless manipulation of consciousness as though assigns, usurutes human in everyone. And yet… According to the modern philosopher, “from society should be able to be punished”.
According to the specificity of professional activity, as you understand, I do not punish me, at least in terms of understanding the real language. Those words that are so straining our society are related to the bodily bottom, with its two functions: physiological dispatch and sex.
— you take part in international scientific programs and, probably, know how the Ukrainian situation differs from others. Is it different?
— certainly different. In all cultures without exception there is a value dominant, which determines the choice of one or another investtive strategy. European cultures (with a great fate of conditionality) traditionally cover three types: Sex-Culture (Russian, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian-the strongest three words); Shit-culture-I hope globalization allows not to translate this term (German, Czech, English, French-German “Shizet” and all that is connected with it); Sacrum-Culture (Romance languages, partly Czech, Slovak, Polish-the most terrible swearing with the mention of the Virgin). But I repeat, it is very conditional, because for society, each language has its own labile system of taboos.
— which group belongs to Ukrainian culture?
— The material examined by me allows to assert that to shit-culture. Simple arithmetics: phraseologisms with sexual verbs – about 20, from wed. и — 46; With the name of the female organ — 38, masculine — 57, but with CP – up to 151! With a arc not less. By the way, Ukrainians themselves feel that the back place is not just an organ, but something very important for our mentality, the worldview. I remember a very nice conceptual article to go to the “body of the Sixth Sense” in the peak of three years ago?
“So, are those nationalists who claim that the Ukrainian language of the mother was not, that in our солов’їну our language brought Russians?”
“Yes, that is true of the mat, i.e. sexual curse, they have brought it.” Just as the Germans have instilled once to Chekham shit-layku. In a Grinchenko dictionary, swearing on-Moscow is a curse of mother’s father. You know, though it was still a little, but in the Ukrainian language the incarnation did not become something original. Moreover, getting to our soil, it is lexical filled with relatives “zasdom”.
In the Immortal “Aenedi” of I. Kotlyarevsky is a cursory remark in Serbian great faith. That is, as my father commented, I am not afraid of obscene words. The historical fact is that in Ukraine, in particular, in Poltava region, where Kotlyarevsky and my father lived, there were many Serbs, who during the war of Austria with Turkey moved to Ukraine. The Serbs came to Ukraine not as colonists, but their sexual swearing influenced the local language. Nothing, inter-ethnic relations, migration processes…
— but still the influence of the Russian language and culture is much bigger.
— In this aspect so. However, our sketches can be found here: He has given a govno, it is necessary to chew, and our euphemistic: A duck in the buckwheat Records already the Dictionary of O. Flougoni beginning 70-XX century.
— you do not share the opinion of those linguists who speak about the death of the Ukrainian language, about the apocalypse of Ukrainian culture?
— About the death of the most loudly shouting those who are lazy or not able to truly learn the language, to conclude non-traditional special dictionaries that would be shown, how rich and beautiful it is. If we all are talking in Russian, it would be studied “Ukrainian Russian” Language. and point. But the pretty part is talking about himself and his world in Ukrainian.
I personally do not share that neurotic purism, which is inherent to some scholars and politicians. By and large, the language is not someone’s property. Let the politicians fight poverty and undelivered debris, while linguists are exploring, how and why we speak so. Look, and the dirt will go down.
— however, the “rudimentary” half-language to some extent defines processes in society.
— Yes, we live in a bilingual state. Whatever it is, but not only do we create language, but also the language creates us. A cultural person creates a cultural linguistic environment with at least the voices of elites in the information space. In the media, something that is not very audible voice of Ukrainian or local Russian intellectuals. I am not saying that there is none, they are not heard in the format of copyright.
— Now the voices of Kiev intellectuals sound in the pages of the “Um” in “Kyiv meetings”!
It is good, but remember, even in Soviet times the television was much more intelligent, was an unforgettable program of Yuriy Lotman. Even if all the things that show on numerous channels sounded good in Ukrainian, it would not have raised the cultural level of Ukrainians.
If you return to the language, pay attention, from everyday circulation there is a ritual cliché type “apologize”, “can I ask you”, “or could you do something.” Yes, it is a ritual word, but they mean a lot for the scenario of deeper communication.
— Yes, in the United States, a country that is in comparison with the noble Europe is considered to be a non-cultural, the underground is twenty times forgiven when it is being punched to the exit.
— Absolutely correct. And how many scientific researches and handbooks on the topic “Language and politeness”!
— and, however, all this situation scientists study, systematize and enter into dictionaries. Why do you have a desire to serve all this unnoble vocabulary in the form of such a noble structure as a dictionary?
-Culture, indifferent, high or marginal, in its nature seeks systematization, encyclopedic and vocabulary of knowledge about the world. The notion that the lexicograph has no right to castrate a live language, at the beginning of the last century wrote I. Boewen de Courtenay. The dictionary does not corrupts and does not legitimizes the language, but records a certain cut of culture. In the same language the force-silenna means of the nobility of obscene, which makes even more scientific interest.
-and the last question that can not be washed, when you go to the conversation with any Ukrainian intellectuals of our days. These are gender problems.